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Pharmacology: List of References

This subject guide was created for the Pharmacology department staff and students.

How to create a list of references

  • Your reference list should appear at the end of your assignment/report with the entries listed numerically and in the same order that they were given in the text.


It is very important that you use the right punctuation and that the order of details in the reference is also correct.

    1. Baker PN, editor. Obstetrics by ten teachers. 18th ed. London: Hodder Arnold; 2006.
    2. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(4):284-7.
  • Book and journal titles are not italicised or placed in quotation marks.
  • Only first words of the article title and words that normally begin with a capital letter are capitalised.
  • Journal titles are abbreviated. A list of abbreviations for the titles is available online at either NLM Catalog: Journal abbreviation or Medical Journal Abbreviations (Internationally recognised abbreviations for journal titles)
  • If the journal has continuous page numbering, you may omit month/issue number.
  • Some commonly used abbreviations:
    • c. = circa (about, approximately in time)
    • ch. = chapter
    • ed. = edition
    • et al. = and others
    • fig; figs = figure(s)
    • ill; ills = illustrator(s)
    • p. = page(s)
    • para; paras = paragraph(s)
    • pt; pts = part(s)
    • rev = revised
    • suppl = Supplement